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Patellofemoral pain syndrome, also known as chondromalacia patella or anterior knee pain, is a common injury amongst runners both experienced and beginner. It is an overuse injury that is difficult to determine, but could be a result of biomechanics or muscular faults. The condition is not limited to one knee and can be linked to other injuries.

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A broken kneecap is one of the less likely knee injuries but can be incredibly painful and debilitating to those that do suffer from one. They are usually caused by the result of a direct blow to the knee, which can happen by falling forward, in a car accident or while playing sports such as football and rugby.

A torn cartilage injury, also referred to as a meniscus tear injury, is one of the most common knee injuries amongst those aged over 65 and athletes who play contact sports, like football and rugby, or those that involve jumping, such as basketball.

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Osteochondritis dissecans, or OCD, is a rare condition caused when a fragment of bone becomes loose in the joint. The condition’s cause differs depending on your age. For adults, OCD forms after the physis or epiphyseal plate has closed, while for young people, it can occur while still growing.

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Osgood-Schlatter disease, sometimes referred to as Osgood's or OSD, is a condition that causes the bones, cartilage and tendons at the top of the shinbone or tibia where the patellar tendon is attached to become inflamed. The syndrome is most commonly found amongst active young people aged 8 to 15 years old but has also been known to affect some adults too.

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Infrapatellar fat pad impingement, also referred to as Hoffa’s Syndrome, is a common knee injury that causes anterior knee pain. Trauma or gradual wear and tear can cause the fat pad to become damaged causing discomfort. This can restrict the range of movement of the knee joint and cause pain to be intensified during or after any activity.

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Jumper’s knee, also known as patella tendonitis, is usually an injury that affects athletes and sportspeople where there is a demand to run and jump. The condition develops as a result of overuse, but can also be caused by a poor landing, exacerbating an already existing condition or a biomechanical problem, such as a loose kneecap or rolling inward foot.

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The LCL is a pair of ligaments that run the length of the knee - one runs down the inner side of the leg while the other on the outer side. An LCL injury is an uncommon form of knee damage but can happen if trauma is experienced to the knee or to the inside of the thigh or leg. Contact sports, such as football and rugby, are likely causes of LCL injuries as players can experience trauma from a kick to the knee or leg.

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The PCL is a band of tissue that connects the shin bone to your thigh bone. Damage to this area caused by a fall or trauma can leave you immobile for weeks or even months. To make a full recovery, it is important that you have access to suitable care as a PCL knee injury can cause problems in later life, such as arthritis.

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An ACL injury can be caused by a direct impact to the knee, landing incorrectly after a jump, a sudden twist or turn in the knee or excessive pressure on the knee. It is particularly common in certain sports, including football, rugby and hockey. An injury can range from a minor sprain to a total tear of the ligament with treatments ranging from physiotherapy to surgery. Furthermore, an ACL injury is likely to cause additional damage to the meniscus and articular cartilage. Injuries can be minimised by staying active and following exercises correctly.

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