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An ACL injury can be caused by a direct impact to the knee, landing incorrectly after a jump, a sudden twist or turn in the knee or excessive pressure on the knee. It is particularly common in certain sports, including football, rugby and hockey. An injury can range from a minor sprain to a total tear of the ligament with treatments ranging from physiotherapy to surgery. Furthermore, an ACL injury is likely to cause additional damage to the meniscus and articular cartilage. Injuries can be minimised by staying active and following exercises correctly.

Pain in one of the knees is usually a result of overusing or injuring it. Pain can be measured from mild to serious with many cases not needing medical attention to rest and care at home. Due to the vulnerability of the knee joint, there are many ways an injury can happen; however, they are more common amongst older people, those who are overweight and those who do a lot of sport.

Runner’s knee, also known as iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS), can affect anyone, from the most experienced athletes to those just starting out and exercising as part of a healthier lifestyle.

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A MCL injury is a tear or sprain to the band of tissue that connects the thigh bone to the lower leg bone and is located inside the knee. Damage to this ligament causes instability, pain and swelling. They are usually not caused by day-to-day activities because it takes a vigorous blow, twist or bend to cause a MCL injury - similar to something that might be experienced during a contact sport or during a collision in skiing, for example. Due to the nature of the injury, it is likely that you will suffer an injury to the lateral collateral ligament also.

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Osteoarthritis always starts with damage to the articular (joint) cartilage, which plays a central role in the healthy joint. It is as a protective layer covering the bone ends meeting each other in the joint. It cushions the joints and helps them move smoothly and easily (allowing them to glide over each other when in motion). It also protects the bone from abrasion and damage.

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There are many factors that can increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis later on in life. People over the age of forty are more likely to have osteoarthritis than younger people, because the joints become worn, the muscles get weaker and the body is generally less able to heal as you grow older.

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