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Which swimming stroke burns most calories? Since more calories are burnt when swimming fast and covering a greater distance, it seems obvious that the fastest stroke will burn most calories. It is generally agreed that the freestyle stroke, also known as front crawl, is the most efficient and fastest swimming stroke, but this does not mean you should choose freestyle every time. In addition to speed, the number of calories burned whilst swimming depends on frequency and duration. This means that if you prefer breaststroke to freestyle, you may swim longer when you do breaststroke than you would doing front crawl, so more calories would be burned in total. The stroke that actually burns the most is the butterfly stroke, and this can use 404 calories in thirty minutes, but this cannot normally be maintained for a long period of time. Five minutes of butterfly would burn about 67 calories. Thirty minutes of backstroke could burn 257 calories, compared to 367 calories burned for thirty minutes of breaststroke. Slow front crawl will use up 220 calories in thirty minutes, whilst half an hour of front crawl at a fast pace can burn 404 calories. General leisure swimming will burn 220 calories in thirty minutes. If you combine all the above strokes, doing five minutes of each, you will burn around 318 calories in half an hour. The best strategy for burning most calories is to choose the stroke or strokes that you are most likely to be able to do consistently. Mixing strokes helps to work more of the muscles and adds interest to your swimming workout.

Discover the background of osteoarthritis treatment Osteoarthritis is one of the biggest causes of pain and misery in adults worldwide, affecting millions of mainly older people across the globe and costing governments and health providers billions of pounds. Overall, the condition - which is often abbreviated to OA - is estimated to affect more than 630 million people globally. More women than men are affected, and it is more likely to be seen in people over the age of 60 (though conditions can begin to materialise from 40 onwards). In the UK, around eight million adults have OA - nearly five million of whom have arthritis of the knee. What do the history books tell us? The word osteoarthritis was first used in the late 19th century, when modern medicine was beginning to be developed as a more advanced science; however, we know that the various forms of arthritis have been around for much, much longer. Evidence from literature, historical accounts, visual representations in books and paintings, analysis of skeletal remains of various ages and new understandings of the causes of arthritis mean we know that people have been suffering from the condition for as long as humans have been around.

We know that what we out in our body can have an impact on how it works and feels. But did you know that certain foods may be causing your joints to hurt? 3 Foods That Could Be Making Your Joints Hurt

Surgical options to manage osteoarthritis of the knee Surgery is often used in the most severe cases of osteoarthritis, though there are a number of surgical options available depending on the severity of the condition and the level of invasiveness a patient may wish to consider. Total Knee Replacement: The ends of the shin bone and the femur are 'capped' with either metal or plastic prostheses, which allows them to move against each other smoothly, to restore function to the knee. In the UK, there are over 70,000 knee replacement surgeries every year, a figure which is increasing steadily. Around four-fifths of the numbers are women, with the majority of patients over the age of 70. Partial Knee Replacement: Only replaces a section of the damaged joint, either the medial compartment (inner knee), the lateral compartment (outer knee) or the patellofemoral compartment at the front of the knee, where it joins the thigh bone. Knee Osteotomy: Introducing a small 'wedge' of bone, or artificial bone, to encourage weight to be forced onto the less damaged side of the joint. Done appropriately, the procedure is thought to postpone total knee replacement surgery for as long as another ten years. Knee Arthroscopy: Least invasive form of surgery to the knee. Also known as keyhole surgery, tiny incisions allow access to a flexible camera and surgical tools, with which the surgeon removes small, loose pieces of bone and cartilage that have been irritating the joint. Risks of knee surgery All surgery carries a degree of risk, and knee surgery is no exception. The best thing you can do is to read up on all options before making a decision to help find the best solution for you.

When is knee replacement surgery offered or suggested for osteoarthritis? The worst cases of OA - those that are creating considerable pain or restricting a patient’s everyday activities more than is acceptable - could be referred for surgery. Today, hip and knee replacements are common and highly successful operations that improve the lives of thousands of people every year, who find their mobility vastly improved by the procedure. The first knee replacement was performed way back in 1968. Early artificial knees were made like hinges; therefore, they would not allow the knee to move in a natural way. Perhaps unsurprisingly, many artificial knees failed soon after surgery; as a result, surgeons tended to only perform them in older patients, where a second operation would not be required.Over the decades, the artificial knee joints have been greatly developed, with improvements in both techniques and the materials used meaning that knee implants are now routinely performed on younger patients. Constant developments and improvements mean both hip and knee replacements continue to become more effective; in addition, new, longer-lasting materials mean the operation no longer has to be repeated every ten years or so.

Whether you're a gym rat or you simply have a rigorous walking routine, your knees take a pounding day to day. Add a few of these key exercises to your next workout routine to help keep your knees ready for action.

Knee replacement surgery gets mentioned a lot, but what does it actually involve? Watch this video to find out what a knee replacement surgery entails

What are the most common swimming injuries? Most injuries sustained by swimmers are related to overuse, but using incorrect techniques can also cause injury. Shoulder problems can be related to poor stroke mechanics used in front crawl and elbow issues can be caused by the arm pull in breaststroke and butterfly. Breaststroke can also cause knee stress injuries which are not seen in swimmers using different strokes.Injuries to the shoulder are the most common in swimming and, in fact, 90 percent of all swimming injuries are related to the shoulder. These can include shoulder instability, rotator cuff impingement and biceps tendinitis. All these conditions, collectively known as Swimmer’s shoulder, can result from weakness and fatigue of the muscles surrounding the shoulder blade and the rotator cuff.Injuries to the lower body are quite common in swimmers who use breaststroke. Breaststroker’s knee involves the ligaments and tendons of the knee and inflammation of the hip tendons can also cause hip pain. Preventing and treating swimming injuries The risk of injury can be reduced by various strategies. Learning and implementing good stroke techniques is important, as is performing cross training and core strengthening exercises at the beginning of the season, to make sure your condition is as good as it can be. Try to lessen any repetitive strokes that may be responsible for overuse injuries. Good communication between the swimmer, their coach and any medical professionals involved is very important, both for preventing injuries and for aiding recovery. Rest is needed for recovery from an injury, so only return to swimming when advised by a health professional.Some contributing factors to the development of a swimming injury include joint swelling or stiffness, poor rehabilitation following an earlier injury, an inadequate recovery period from training, poor warm up or warm down and poor core stability.

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